Sacroiliac Joint

According to research, at least 10 to 30% of LBP or low back pain is linked to the sacroiliac joints. A review 1 in the journal of Best Practice & Research Clinical Rheumatology decided to give the said link a more in-depth look.

The Context
As mentioned, studies have shown an approximate 10-30% of all LBP being attributed to sacroiliac joints SIJ. While almost 44% of SIJ pain is associated with trauma onset, the etiology is still unclear. So, even today, there are numerous challenges when it comes to diagnosing as well as treating sacroiliac joints. One of the biggest challenges is determining whether or not pain or dysfunction in the human body is primarily due to the sacroiliac joint. SIJ being a causative factor, while theorized, doesn’t have a lot of evidence for support.

The Purpose of This Review

The current content aimed to cover the available data regarding the anatomy of SIJ along with its examination, etiology, and treatment to assist clinical approaches. One of the major questions dealt with: when pain is experienced at the SIJ, is it better to direct treatment at local tissues, or should it focus on factors that are remote to the joint?

Furthermore, the review also wanted to analyze if the pain in a region was primarily due to SIJ or were other factors in place (on and around the said joint)?

The review went over the anatomy and function of the Sacroiliac joints, the etiology of Sacroiliac joint dysfunction, the clinical assessment of the SIJ, and managing SIJ pain.

The review tried its best to consider all of the complexities associated with SIJ’s diagnosis and management (including sport and exercise-related SIJ pain). It took a bio-psycho-social perspective.

What did the Review Find?

The review summarized that clinicians and researchers shouldn’t conflate sacroiliac pain, stability, and dysfunction (as all three are separate). Furthermore, trauma and repeated training might be associated with SIJ pain in athletes.

Clinical evaluations should administer clustered pain provocation testing. Such a suggestion was made after determining that palpation and mobility test didn’t offer any proven value. When addressing persistent pain, taking a bio-psycho-social approach is crucial. Treatments (backed by evidence) included pelvic compression belts, surgery, manipulation, exercise, and corticosteroid injections.

Also, further research is required for understanding SIJ pain better.

 

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