properties of the annulus, disc model

Researchers examined the effects of endplate fractures  1 on the mechanical properties of the annulus fibrosis (AF) in porcine spinal segments and found that laminate adhesion strength was significantly compromised in the fractured spines. The findings suggest that microdamage may occur beyond the vertebra, into the interlamellar matrix of the AF—information that could be helpful in the diagnosis and treatment of adolescent spinal growth-plate fractures.

The Study

The authors of this study wished to examine the effects of high-intensity pressurization on the intervertebral discs (IVD) to see how it effected the mechanical and physiological properties of the posterior AF. They used 28 fresh, recently-thawed functional porcine spinal units from 14 porcine specimens that were approximately six months old.  Control units were also used as a comparative measure against the units subjected to pressure.

A hydraulic pump and high-pressure inflation needle were used to pump hydraulic fluid into the IVD of specimens. The researchers were careful not to pierce the AF in the samples. Pressure in the needle was measured by a pressure transducer and converted from analogue to digital at 2048 Hz. The needle was subsequently removed, and the vertebral bodies were assessed for damage. Although fractured endplates created an audible ‘pop,’ the condition was only confirmed after dissection of the IVD. The control-group segments were not tested for fractures. Measurements were taken following the dissection, and the end-plate area was quantified. Bilayer AF samples were then dissected and tested for tensile endurance in the circumferential direction. A second multi-layered sample was then dissected and subjected to delamination and a peel test. Mathematical ratios were then plotted to mark the variable results for each sample.


End-plate size measurements remained consistent across the control and fracture group samples. Bilayer stiffness, toe-region stretch ratio and stress, and stress at 30% stretch were consistent in the control and fracture group samples. However, there was a clinically-significant variance in peel strength—but not peel strength variability— between the two groups. In the fracture group, the peel strength was 31 percent lower than in the control group. Dissection and manual delamination were significantly easier in the fracture group of samples, as well.


The results of this study indicate that growth-plate fracture damage may not be limited to the vertebra and may cause microdamage in the nearby AF. This was indicated by the reduction of laminate adhesion strength in the posterior AF of the fracture IVD samples subjected to pressure in the tests. This information should be taken into account when practitioners are examining and treating adolescent or childhood vertebral fractures involving the endplates.


KEYWORDS: damage during spinal growth-plate fractures, effects of endplate fractures on the mechanical properties of the annulus fibrosis, effects of high-intensity pressurization on the intervertebral discs, mechanical and physiological properties of the posterior AF, delamination and a peel test, Bilayer stiffness, toe-region stretch ratio and stress


Dr. Jerome Fryer (CEO of Dynamic Disc Designs Corp):

“Hello everyone. Dr. Jerome Fryer here of Dynamic Disc Designs. I just want to reach out to those customers that have one of my models. There’s been a lot of talk lately on social media regarding how models can be scary. I don’t know how they’re scary. Models are not scary. It really depends on the user and these models are not intended to scare anybody. It’s to teach them their own anatomy, so they can improve their posture and biomechanics to relieve their symptoms. It’s a team player. It’s like a car. You can go out there ram into people or you can drive defensively and respectfully. Anyway, so one thing that’s important when you’re using the model is to relay realistic biomechanics  and use the model in a way that simulates real-time and load.

You want to use it in a way that actually represents the actual tissue. You can talk about all sorts of things, but you can talk about disc height changes as the disc over the course of the day loses a percentage of its height. You can talk about normal loading patterns of the disc as it relates the associated nerves. But, what I would encourage is just to use real-time forces. For example if someone goes to sit down, they change their lumbar angle and they compress their disc. When they sit for a period of time, the disc actually loses further height. You want to show the subtle endplate angle changes as it relates to the facet joint for example, or in the suspected case of disc herniation, you can actually create a disc herniation.

Single-Level Disc Herniation

Model of Single-Level Disc Herniation.

One example is the changing fluid expression over the course of the day. This is an important little graph to help patients understand how first thing in the morning you’ll actually lose their height very quickly in the disc height, so the facets will actually approximate with the changing intradiscal pressure, and then over the course of the day the disc height will slowly reduce. Some people talk about around 4:00 or 5:00 in the evening as the day progresses, my symptoms become pronounced. Then also with first lie down too. You can see there’s a quick change in disc height. Anyways, I just wanted to share with you that it’s how you use the model and you want to use it in ways that are realistic with regards to movement.”




spine pain, models

Ed Cambridge: “Our colleague Jerome Fryer created some models for us, and this is some of the work that has come out of our lab with you and Christian Balkovec about the dynamic changes we see after herniation. Where we have disc height loss at one level, creating hypermobility at the adjacent level. So here you can see, when you move the spine around there is a stiffening effect down in the lower joint and in the upper joint hypermobility. That’s what we see when an injury propagates from one joint to the next. The patient says, “Well, the pain used to be lower but now its starting to creep up my back a little bit.” “

Stuart McGill: “Fabulous. Another little take on that … By the way, these are all cast from real human specimens. So this is the real deal. Once again, Dynamic Disc Designs has been so clever in representing the biofidelity. We start to see how this disc has been damaged, and it’s quite lax as we move it around. So those micro-movements now are triggering pain just at that level. And this joint has normal stiffness, but then look what happens. Over time, the join changes because of the change in mechanics. The lax disc now cases a bit more arthritis in those facet joints, because they are now responsible for much more motion. So then, look what happens to the cascade. As the person now extends, look what happens. The joint that was hypermobile has now bound up, has no mobility because the facets have bound up and all the motion is now left at the previously stiffened joint. The polar opposite. And then you need some kind of mobility to pop those facet joints open again after they’ve been jammed.”

inflammatory mediators

The changing spine and the anatomy. Professional LxH Dynamic Disc Model

Stuart McGill:  “So, when you understand the cascade of change that happens at a joint, it might be kicked off with a little bit of a flattened disc, which puts more load in the facet joints, which causes a little bit of arthritic growth. In two years, the joint has changed and so have the pain patterns and the mechanics. So, it really does lend insight to allow us to understand the cascade of how the patient reports those changes and their pain changes over the years. And it better allows us to show them what to do to wind down the pain sensitivity. “


Lumbar Foramen

 An in vivo study of cross-sectional lumbar foramen dimensions during a weight-lifting activity showed that all levels of the lumbar intervertebral foramen (LIVF) area decreased, except for the L5-S1 segment during lumbar extension, which had consistent measurements of the foramen, height, and width throughout the activity. The results of the study could provide insight into ways to improve the diagnosis or treatment of lumbar foramen stenosis.

Purpose of the Study

Radiculopathy caused by nerve root compression is a common symptom of LIVF stenosis and is often treated surgically, through the implantation of an interspinous device or decompression. Because the LIVF is surrounded by mobile facet joints, its shape undergoes changes during typical daily movement. As it changes shape, it may put pressure on nerve roots or other structures that may cause pain. Complications arising from the changing dynamic anatomy of the LIVF during activity can lead to failed back surgery syndrome, so understanding how movement and weight-bearing affects the LIVF is important to effective treatment and maintenance of back pain.

The Study

An MRI study of 10 healthy subjects (five male, five female) in supine, relaxed positions was conducted, and 3D spine models were constructed based upon the results of the scans. The lumbar spines of the subjects were then imaged during lumbar extension postures of 45 degrees to a maximally-extended position, while the subjects were holding an 8-pound dumbbell in both hands. These scans were also used to create 3D vertebral models of the in-vivo dimensions during activity, and a data analytic design was created to determine the area, height, and width of the L2-S1 vertebral levels during the activity for 45-degree flexion, upright position, and maximal extension.


Researchers found that the LIVF area in L2-L3, L3-L4, and L4-L5 decreased during weight-lifting activity. The LIVF widths also showed a similar decrease, but the heights remained throughout the extension activity. However, the foramen area, height, and width at L5-S1 did not change during the weight-lifting. Overall, the data for all other areas demonstrated a change of approximately 10 percent from 45 degrees flexion to an upright standing posture, and again from upright standing to maximal extension. This information underscores how patients with LIVF stenosis may experience nerve root impingement pain during extension postures and feel relief from that pain during flexion. Understanding the in vivo dynamics of the functioning lumbar spine may help practitioners in the treatment and diagnosis of lumbar foramen stenosis.


lumbar spinal stenosis, spinal canal narrowing

A superior view of our Lumbar spinal stenosis model with a dynamic disc bulge and dynamic ligamentum flavum.

KEYWORDS: Lumbar Foramen Dimensions During Activity, in vivo study of cross-sectional lumbar foramen dimensions during a weight-lifting activity, insight into ways to improve the diagnosis or treatment of lumbar foramen stenosis, Radiculopathy caused by nerve root compression, Complications arising from the changing dynamic anatomy of the LIVF during activity, nerve root impingement pain during extension postures

Diurnal Disc Shape

The spine undergoes natural shape and fluid changes over the course of 24 hours. Often, back pain symptoms vary as well over the day and night cycle.  But the small changes and the links to pain have not been researched thoroughly. Here, a group of researchers from Duke University looked at the reliability of measuring intervertebral disc shape with recumbent MRI. This large avascular structure is linked to back pain and has significant diurnal variation in the human body. It would seem wise to further understand its diurnal disc shape changes.

Some people feel pain in the mornings and others feel things more so at the end of the day. Yet others feel pain more so when they lie down.

The intervertebral disc hydraulically keeps vertebrae separated. Water is squeezed out throughout the day as the human frame is vertical, and this water gets resorbed when an individual lays down. During the process, the disc changes shape and height. And when pain is involved, these shape and height changes can bear increased ( or decreased ) physical stress on structures that may be inflammatory. These can include annular fissures, disc bulges, disc herniations, disc protrusions, encroaching nerve or rootlets of nerves and the shingling of facet joints, just to name a few.

The purpose of this study was to determine intra and inter-rater reliability using MRI to measure diurnal changes of the intervertebral discs.

They did find excellent reliability, and interestingly they saw the most significant change in the posterior annulus region of L5-1. The diurnal variations were in line with what others had seen in previous work. Boos at al. in 1996 saw a 1-2mm change over the course of an 8h workday while Hutton et al. in 2003 saw a volume change of 1-2 cm3.

This research is essential if we are to fully understand back pain origins. Often pain syndromes related to the lower back present with symptoms that are diurnal. At Dynamic Disc Designs, we have models to help explain these subtle but significant changes to the discs, assisting patients to understand the onset of their pains and the diurnal disc shape and the natural variations.


dynamic disk

The dynamic disk plays a significant role in the resistance to compression. It is known to physically compress over the course of the day by as much as 20 percent with recovery achieved during sleep or recumbency. Its implications intertwined with back pain. 1 One of the focused investigations into its essential function has been its intrinsic ability to maintain and absorb water. Negatively charged proteoglycans contain properties that attract water, and it is this hydraulic characteristic believed to be at the core.

However much still is to be discovered; especially in the higher understanding how best to draw in fluid and recover the expulsion of this water under axial compression. In a manuscript published in the Journal of Biomechanics 2, researchers worked to answer the questions regarding loading and unloading of the dynamic disk.

The researchers revealed a new personality of the annulus fibrosis as playing a significant in the ability to absorb water. The annulus demonstrated both properties of viscoelasticity as well as the binding capacity to retain water. This information is new in the better understanding of how disks maintain vertebral spacing with regards to recovery. Load and unloading cycles are natural, but it is the intrinsic ability of the dynamic disk to maintain spacing over time that is important to continue to study. Congratulations to the authors for choosing a worthy investigation.

At Dynamic Disk Designs, we work to model the dynamic nature of the spinal structures to improve communication of spine science. Our work facilitates patient education and student teaching of spine. Having a model dynamic disk allows the better understanding of disk height loss over time to explain back pain mechanics and the respective hydraulic solutions.

posture, disc hydration

Disc hydration fluctuates naturally and diurnally. That is, over the course of the day/night cycle we (as humans) lose up to 20% of the water out of our spinal discs. 1 The intervertebral discs are sensitive to load and because of their visceo-elastic make-up they will deform under load. Most notable changes seem to occur under sustained or static loads. 2 3 4 5 6 Therefore, it is important to offload the spine, especially when one sits for an extended period of time.

Recently, a study published in the Lancet 7 looked at the 188 countries and followed them between 1990-2013 and revealed that the number one reason for disability was back pain. Yes, back pain! Not heart disease. Could we extract from this that it is perhaps the introduction of computers and more time sitting? There could be other factors but there little doubt that the human population is moving less and fixated in front of a computer….just like myself at the moment.

Lumbar Disc Changes Associated with Prolonged Sitting

Take a Break and Off-load

This 8 off-loading strategy is thought to relieve the compressive forces of the spine to allow it to refill slightly….interupting sustained compressive loads, which we know is harmful.

Interestingly, a paper published in the Journal of Human Evolution in 2000 9 looked at knuckle walkers and ‘compared to humans, all ape samples show dramatically less spinal disease, especially when considerng vertebral body involvement’ . The authors concluded that this significant difference was likely due to the gait mechanism. And obviously, they use their upper extremities to off-load their spines during the course of their gait cycle.

Therefore, it looks like if you behave more like an ape and use your upper extremities, your spine will benefit. Teach your patients to minimize compressive loads by integrating off-loading strategies in their day to decrease the creep and compressive responses in the spine…..keeping the discs hydrated to prevent disc height loss.


  1.  Urban,J.P., McMullin,J.F., 1988. Swelling pressure of the lumbar intervertebral discs: influence of age,spinal level, composition,and degeneration. Spine 13, 179–187.
  2.  Adams, M.A., Hutton,W.C., 1983. The effect of posture ont he fluid content of lumbar intervertebral discs. Spine (Philadelphia1976) 8, 665–671.
  3.  Kazarian, L.E., 1975. Creep characteristics of the human spinal column. Orthop. Clin. N. Am. 6, 3–18.
  4.  Keller,T.S., Spengler,D.M., Hansson,T.H. ,1987. Mechanical behavior of the human lumbar spine. Creep analysis during static compressive loading. J.Orthop.Res. 5, 467–478.
  5.  Koeller,W., Funke,F., Hartmann,F., 1984a. Biomechanical behavior of human intervertebral discs subjected to long lasting axial loading. Biorheology 21, 675–686.
  6.  Markolf, K.L.,1972. Deformation of the thoracolumbar intervertebral joints in response to external loads: a biomechanical study using autopsy material.J.Bone Jt. Surg.Am. 54,511–533.
  7. Lancet. 2015 Aug 22; 386(9995): 743–800. 
  8.  Fryer JC1, Quon JA, Smith FW. Magnetic resonance imaging and stadiometric assessment of the lumbar discs after sitting and chair-care decompression exercise: a pilot study. Spine J. 2010 Apr;10(4):297-305.
  9. Jurmain, R Degenerative joint disease in African great apes: an evolutionary perspective. Journal of Human Evolution (2000) 39, 185–203