A review article 1 in Spine Surgery and Related Research presented an interesting overview of the molecular mechanisms involved in the degeneration of intervertebral discs. The review also described certain molecular targets and therapies that may help with intervertebral regeneration and repair.
Why do such a Review?
Even though life expectancy has increased over the past century, it isn’t without a share of medical issues. According to research, neck pain and low back pain (LBP) tends to increase with age. They’re also the 1st and 4th leading causes of disability in humans, respectively. Furthermore, intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) plays a significant role in generating back pain. That’s why it’s important to understand the degeneration of healthy joints (especially intervertebral discs or IVDs) with age to improve quality of life.
One of the first tissues that experience degeneration in adults is the IVD. While there’s still a lot to learn, the current review was conducted to share some of the molecular pathways and cellular changes that tend to lead to IDD.
What Did the Review Cover?
The objective of the current review was to offer an overview of the known molecular mechanisms leading to IDD. The review was sure to address the complex interactions of endogenous and exogenous stressors. It focused on the degeneration of the extracellular matrix (of the nucleus pulposus and the annulus fibrosus).
Furthermore, the review also went over the supporting role played by the DNA and intracellular damage, oxidative stress, cellular senescence’s catabolic effects, as well as the inappropriate response by the cells to damage. All of the data can prove to be beneficial in understanding how physical and chemical changes can increase the spine’s degeneration. The review also shared certain therapies for spinal regeneration and repair.
What was Concluded?
The review shared that there’s potential to discover novel disc degeneration mechanisms by focusing on disc functions that help maintain stability as well as motion of a mechanically loaded structure in a nutrient-poor, acidic, and hypoxic environment.
It was important to note that disc degeneration is influenced by the degeneration of adjacent spinal structures and systemic factors. That’s why researching the entire spine is essential for the progress in the spine’s degeneration and regeneration therapies. Also, early intervention (before the functional failure of the spinal disc) is crucial.